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Egyptian Gods

Page history last edited by Scheherazade 14 years, 10 months ago

Ahemait - An Egyptian underworld goddess who is part lion, part hippopotamus, and part crocodile, and who eats the souls of the unworthy dead.

 

Amaunet - A female counterpart to Amon and one of the primordial gods of the Hermopolitian Ogdoad (group of eight gods). She was also worshipped at Thebes along with Amon and Mut.

 

Ament - Goddess who lived in a tree at the edge of the desert where she watched the gates of the afterworld, welcoming the newly dead with bread and water.

 

Amon - Usually associated with the wind, or things hidden, and was also of the Hermopolitian Ogdoad. At Thebes he became Amon-Re, king of the gods. He was part of the Theban Triad, along with Mut and Khonsu.

 

Amset  - One of the four lesser gods of the dead who supervised the mummification process. His name means "carpenter", and he is pictured with a man's head.  See also Hepi, Smotef, and Snouf.

 

Ankt - A spear-carrying Egyptian war goddess.

 

Antaios - He was originally a double god, "the two falcons", that was later joined to create one, probably that of Horus.

 

Anubis - The offspring of Nephthys affair with Osiris. He prepared the dead and led them into the underworld.

 

Anuket - Worshipped at Elephantine, she was associated with the gazelle.

 

Apep - The great snake of darkness, who sometimes rose up, mouth agape, to try to swallow Re's solar barque in its travel across the heavens; Re always managed to escape, but each of Apep's failed attempts resulted in fierce storms or solar eclipses.

 

Apis - Seen as the bull with a solar disk between its horns, Apis was associated with Osiris and Ptah.

 

Athor - The goddess of Love and Beauty. She is usually shown with cow horns, and sometimes with a cow's head. Wife of Amun-Ra.

 

Aton - Also known as Aten, he was worshipped at Tell 'Amarna.

 

Atum - A primordial god that was represented in the form of a human and a serpent. He was the supreme god in the Heliopolitan Ennead (group of nine gods) and formed with Re to create

 

Bakha - The sacred bull that was an incarnation of Menthu, a personification of the heat of the sun. He changed color every hour of the day.

 

Bast or Bastet - Bastet (originally a lion goddess symbolizing the fertilizing force of the sun's rays), became the cat goddess, the patroness of the domestic cat and the home. She is often seen in human form with the head of a cat and holding the sacred rattle known as the sistrim. Bastet is also associated with the eye of Re, the sun god, and acts as an instrument of his vengeance. She ruled over pleasure, dancing, music, and joy.

 

Chem - Also called Ham. He was the god of "increase", considered as the father of their race. He is usually pictured wearing a women's garment.

 

Chonso - Son of Amun-Ra and his wife Athor. Usually pictured with the new moon atop his head.

 

Geb - God of the earth.

 

Hathor - The goddess of love, dance and alcohol. At Thebes she was also the goddess of the dead. She was worshipped at Dendera as the consort of Horus and Edfu, and was associated with Isis at Byblos.  Also worshipped as a sky goddess, Hathor is depicted wearing a sun disk held between the horns of a cow as a crown. Hathor was the patroness of all women, artists, music, dance, and happiness. She is often traditionally present in all ancient Egyptian tombs to ensure safe passage into the after world.

 

Hepi - Another of the four lesser gods of the dead. His name means digger, and he has an ape's head.

 

Het - Het is the Egyptian serpent goddess who rules fire.

 

Horus - The earliest royal god was the shape of a falcon, with the sun and moon as his eyes. The sky-god was the ruler of the day. The many forms of Horus are; Re-Harakhti, Harsiesis, Haroeris, Harendotes, Khenti-irti, Khentekhtay (the crocodile-god), and Harmakhis, which is Horus on the horizons, in which the Sphinx of Giza is considered to be his aspect.  He was conceived miraculously by Isis and the dead Osiris. He swore to avenge his father's murder.

 

Imhotep - Also Imothph, the god of science or medicine. Son of Ptah and Sekhet. Counselor-physician to Zoser (Tosorthros), who founded Egypt's 3rd Dynasty.  His name means "peace".

 

Isis - Sometimes Isitis, which means Earth or corn-bearing Land. She is the "mother of all creation". A daughter of Geb and Nut, she was the faithful wife of her brother Osiris. She became universally worshipped, is associated with love, motherhood, marital devotion, healing, eternal life, and the casting of magical spells and charms. Isis is the goddess of day, while her twin sister, Nephthys, is the goddess of night. Her sacred symbol is an amulet called the tyet. She is the mother of Horus.

 

Khepri - The scarab beetle god who rolled the sun through the sky.

 

Khnum - The Egyptian god, who fashioned men and women on a potter's wheel, resembling a human with a rams head, he was worshipped in Hypselis, Esna, Antinoe and Elephantine.

 

Khonsu - the moon god was the son of Amon and Mut. The main temple at Karnak is dedicated to him.

 

Kneph - The god of animal and spiritual life. He has the head and horns of a ram.

 

Ma'at - Ma'at is the Egyptian goddess of truth, justice and the underworld. She passed judgement over the souls of the dead in the Judgement Hall of Osiris. The "Law of Ma'at" was the basis of civil laws in ancient Egypt.

 

Min - God of fertility coalesced with Amon and Horus. Min was mainly worshipped at Coptos and Akhmim.

 

Mo - Sometimes the god, sometimes the goddess, of Truth and Justice. Is depicted with ostrich feathers on the head.

 

Mut - Mut is seen as the mother, the nurturing force behind all things while her husband Amon is the great energy or creative force. In ancient Egyptian, 'mut' means mother. The mother of Khonsu. Mut is another name of Isis.

 

The Neb-Ti - The ruling goddesses of the north (Uadgit) and south (Nekhebet, the protector of childbirth).

 

Neith - Her name means the Heavens. She is goddess of the Sky.

 

Nephthys - The twin sister of Isis, Nephthys is the goddess of night and the protectoress of the dead. She is also Set's sister and wife, although, through her subterfuge, she bore a child (the jackal-headed Anubis) by Osiris.

 

Nut - Mother of the sun, moon and heavenly bodies.

 

Osiris - He is regarded as the dead king that watches over the nether world and is rejuvenated in his son Horus. As the symbol of eternal life he was worshipped at Abydos and Philae.  He was also the judge of the dead in the underworld and was killed by his jealous brother Set.

 

Pasht - The goddess of Virtue. She is pictured with a cat's head.

 

Ptah - He was the god of fire and the creator. His figure is bandaged like a mummy, and his head is shaven like a priest. Worshipped in Memphis, he coalesced with Sokaris and Osiris.

 

Re - The sun god, and leader of the gods, he was pictured as a child in the early morning, a man in his prime at noon, and an old man in the evening. He traveled through the underworld at night to be reborn at dawn. From the fifth Dynasty onwards he becomes a national god and is combined with the supreme deity Amon.

 

Sati - Also known as Satis and Satet, is an Egyptian archer goddess who personified the waterfalls of the river Nile.  Sebek (Sobek) means "crocodile".  Also called Seb. Was depicted as having a crocodile face. During the Middle Kingdom he was merged with Re (Sobek-Re) and was worshipped as primordial deity and creator-god.

 

Serapis - He was mainly worshipped in Alexandria and was later worshipped by the Greeks as Zeus. He was never fully accepted by the Egyptians in the Ptolemaic period.

 

Sekhmet - A sun-goddess, Sekhmet is also the lion goddess and her worship was centered in Memphis. Her name means 'powerful'; she was portrayed as either a lion or a woman with the head of a lion, often holding an ankh or sistrum. When Re grew angry at the whinings and complaints of humankind, he ripped out one of his eyes and hurled it at the earth; this eye changed in flight to an avenging goddess, Sekhmet, who ravaged the earth, sucking blood from the people, and almost totally wiping out humankind before a remoseful Re could stop her. She was the mistress of war and sickness.

 

Serapis - His name means "underworld". An ancient Egyptian god of the lower world, he is shown as having a bull's head.  He was mainly worshipped in Alexandria and was later worshipped by the Greeks as Zeus. He was never fully accepted by the Egyptians in the Ptolemaic period.

 

Selket - The beautiful scorpion goddess Selket, has her scorpion strike death to the wicked. She also saves the lives of the innocent stung by a scorpion.

 

Set - He was Osiris' evil brother and was considered the incarnation of wickedness. He tricked Osiris at a feast in Osiris' honor, killed him, and took his place on the throne. In some myths he is called Typhon, and is drawn as a hippopotamus, usually walking on its hind legs.

 

Seth - The son of Geb and Nut in the Heliopolitan Ennead was in the form of an animal that has no zoological equivalent. This powerful god was regarded as god of the desert, making him a god of foreign lands.

 

Shu - He was an ancient cosmic power and was regarded as the god of the air and the bearer of heaven.

 

Smotef - Another of the four lesser gods of the dead. His name means shaper, and he has a jackal's head.

 

Snouf - Another of the four lesser gods of the dead. His name means bleeder, and he has a hawk's head.

 

Sobek - He was a crocodile god and was worshipped at the Faiyum and Ombos. During the middle Kingdom he coalesced with Re, Sobek-Re, and was worshipped as primordial deity and creator-god.

 

Sottef - He sometimes replaces Smotef as one of the four lesser gods of the dead. His name means cutter or purifier.

 

Tefnut - Tefnut is the goddess of daybreak (the goddess of dew and rain) and is associated with the mountains from which the sun rises.

 

Thoth - The god of learning, he was the lunar god usually depicted with the head of an ibis, though he was worshipped as a baboon in Hermopolis. He acted as secretary to the gods, and was the master over writing, languages, laws, annals, and calculations.   He was the god of sacred writings and wisdom. 

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